The U.S. Supreme Court wasn't interested in that history. In an unsigned opinion Monday, it said there can be "no serious doubt" that Citizens United applies in Montana.
Four liberal justices dissented, saying Citizens United should be reconsidered.
Many activists on the left would agree, pointing to the torrent of big money in this year's presidential campaign. Most of that money is made possible either by Citizens United or, more often, by a subsequent lower-court ruling known as SpeechNow.org, which is based on Citizens United.
For critics of Citizens United, the Montana case represented a quick path to reopening the argument â although a highly risky one, considering that the makeup of the Supreme Court hasn't changed.
Now, the critics face the possibility of two long campaigns: to restrict corporate politicking by constitutional amendment, or to wait for opportunities to rebalance the Court as vacancies occur.
Along the way, they can fight for more incremental changes to the now largely deregulated campaign finance system. It doesn't look like an easy journey.